Monday, May 18, 2009

Malaria - Basics 3

Q.1 What are the different phases & host(s) of the malarial parasite?
Ans. Sexual phase (sporogony) in famale Anopheles mosquito & asexual phase (schizogony) in human.

Q.2 Which species of Plasmodium is most prevalent in India?
Ans. Plasmodium vivax is most prevalent in India.
Q.3 During which stage of life cycle plasmodium enters into the RBCs?
Ans. During the Merozoite stage the Plasmodium virus enters into the bloodstream from liver.

Q.4 Which species of Plasmodium causes relapse malaria?
Ans. P.ovale and P.malariae. These parasites can remain in liver in latent stage for month or year and known as Hypnozoites .On reactivation they cause clinical relapse of malaria.

Malaria - Basics 2

Q.1 What are the different symptoms of malaria?
Ans. Most common symptom is fever with chill. Nausea, headache, diarrhea, muscle pain, vomiting often accompany fever. Malaria can also lead to jaundice, anemia, kidney failure, mental confusion, coma and even death.

Q.2 Where does malaria commonly occur?
Ans. Malaria commonly occurs in the temperate zones of the World. Since the warm climate favors the growth of the malaria parasite inside the mosquito hence it attains early maturity & transmits to humans.

Q.3 What are the different methods for malaria detection?
Ans. Malaria is detected through following methods:
a) Microscopy by preparing blood smear
b) Rapid diagnostic test based on antigen detection and antibody detection
c) Molecular diagnosis using PCR.

Q.4 What complications can result from malaria?
Ans. P.falciparum causes cerebral malaria that affects brain. In cerebral malaria the infected red blood cells become sticky and adhere to the small vessels in the brain severely restricting the flow of essential nutrients to the brain. It can also lead to kidney failure, coma or even death.

Malaria - Basics

Q.1What is malaria?
Ans. Malaria is an infectitious disease caused by plasmodium parasite.

Q.2 How is malaria transmitted?
Ans. Parasite infected female anopheles mosquito transmits malaria in humans. Since the malaria parasite is present in red blood cells, malaria also can be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or the shared use of needles or syringes contaminated with blood. Malaria also can be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her foetus before or during delivery.

Q.3 Which is the causal agents of malaria?
Ans. Malaria is caused by any four species of Plasmodium parasite that is P.falciparum, P.ovale, P.malariae & P.vivax. P.falciparum and P.vivax are  prevalent species of plasmodium while p.malariae & P.ovale are rare in India.

Q.4 Which part of the body is mostly infected by malaria?
Ans. It mostly infects liver where they develop& multiply. It can also infect other internal organs including brain.